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Emil Fedotov
Emil Fedotov

Where To Buy Cranberry Extract For Dogs



Objective: To determine effects of cranberry extract on development of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and on adherence of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.




where to buy cranberry extract for dogs


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Procedures: 12 dogs with a history of recurrent UTI received an antimicrobial (n = 6) or cranberry extract (6) orally for 6 months. Dogs were monitored for a UTI. For the in vitro experiment, cranberry extract was orally administered to 6 dogs for 60 days. Voided urine samples were collected from each dog before and 30 and 60 days after onset of extract administration. Urine was evaluated by use of a bacteriostasis assay. An antiadhesion assay and microscopic examination were used to determine inhibition of bacterial adherence to MDCK cells.


Results: None of the 12 dogs developed a UTI. The bacteriostasis assay revealed no zone of inhibition for any urine samples. Bacterial adhesion was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results for urine samples obtained before extract administration. Microscopic examination revealed that bacterial adherence to MDCK cells was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results after culture with urine samples obtained before extract administration.


Conclusions and clinical relevance: Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E coli adherence to MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs.


OBJECTIVE To determine effects of cranberry extract on development of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and on adherence of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.


PROCEDURES 12 dogs with a history of recurrent UTI received an antimicrobial (n = 6) or cranberry extract (6) orally for 6 months. Dogs were monitored for a UTI. For the in vitro experiment, cranberry extract was orally administered to 6 dogs for 60 days. Voided urine samples were collected from each dog before and 30 and 60 days after onset of extract administration. Urine was evaluated by use of a bacteriostasis assay. An antiadhesion assay and microscopic examination were used to determine inhibition of bacterial adherence to MDCK cells.


RESULTS None of the 12 dogs developed a UTI. The bacteriostasis assay revealed no zone of inhibition for any urine samples. Bacterial adhesion was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results for urine samples obtained before extract administration. Microscopic examination revealed that bacterial adherence to MDCK cells was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results after culture with urine samples obtained before extract administration.


CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E coli adherence to MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs.


Studies5,7 indicate that the consumption of cranberry extract can prevent UTIs in women. However, there is a paucity of studies on the benefits of cranberries for prevention of UTIs in dogs. Therefore, the objectives of the study reported here were to investigate the effect of cranberry extract on the development of UTIs in dogs with a history of recurrent UTIs and to evaluate effects of urine obtained from dogs provided cranberry extract on adhesion of E coli to MDCK cells.


Dogs were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood samples and voided urine samples were collected from each dog immediately before onset of cephalexin or cranberry extract administration and then once per month for 6 months. Once each month, a complete physical examination, hematologic examination, biochemical analysis, urinalysis, and bacterial culture of a urine sample were performed.


The efficacy of cranberry extract for inhibiting bacterial adherence to MDCK cells was evaluated by use of an in vitro assay with modifications described elsewhere.9 Antiadhesion assays were performed as follows.


A test sample of urine plus bacteria was created by mixing an aliquot of the bacterial suspension (a standard bacterial concentration of 106 CFUs/mL, as determined by use of a 0.5-McFarland standard8) with urine samples obtained before and 30 and 60 days after onset of cranberry extract administration. The ratio was 1:10 (1 part bacterial suspension to 9 parts urine sample). Each well of a 96-well plastic plate was prepared by adding 50 μL of the test sample (urine plus bacteria) and 150 μL of DMEM (final volume, 200 μL/well) to the methanol-fixed MDCK cells. Plates were then incubated at 25C for 30 minutes.


A test sample of urine plus bacteria was created by mixing an aliquot of the bacterial suspension (a standard bacterial concentration of 106 CFUs/mL, as determined by use of a 0.5-McFarland standard8) with urine samples obtained before and 30 and 60 days after onset of cranberry extract administration. The ratio was 1:10 (1 part bacterial suspension to 9 parts urine sample). Each well of a 24-well plastic plate was prepared by adding 200 μL of the test sample (urine plus bacteria) and 300 μL of DMEM (final volume, 200 μL/well) to the methanol-fixed MDCK cells. Plates were then incubated at 25C for 30 minutes.


Results of the bacteriostasis assay were the same for urine samples obtained before and 30 and 60 days after the onset of cranberry extract administration to the 6 dogs. Enrofloxacin (positive control sample) yielded the only inhibition zone (diameter > 30 mm). No inhibition zone was observed around the sterile saline solution (negative control sample) or the urine samples of the 6 dogs (Figure 1).


In the in vivo experiment reported here, an antimicrobial and powdered cranberry extract were administered to prevent UTIs in dogs. None of the dogs developed UTIs, as determined on the basis of clinical signs and laboratory results, which corresponded with results of another study.5 Some studies6,10,11 of humans indicate that the use of cranberries to prevent UTIs is better than the prophylactic use of low-dose antimicrobials because long-term use of antimicrobials increases the risk of antimicrobial resistance.


Mean E coli adherence to MDCK cells after incubation with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days was significantly lower, compared with adherence after incubation with the urine sample obtained before administration of the cranberry extract. Moreover, mean E coli adherence was significantly lower after incubation with the urine sample obtained at 60 days, compared with results after incubation with the urine sample obtained at 30 days.


In the present study, MDCK cells were used because they are a good in vitro method of screening to detect bacteria virulence23 or determining the pathogenesis of various bacterial infections, including those attributable to uropathogenic E coli.24,25 Adhesion of uropathogenic E coli to epithelial cells can lead to ascending UTIs, which range from nonclinical bacteriuria to cystitis and acute pyelonephritis to more severe acute lobar nephronia.26 Bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells by fimbrial or nonfimbrial adhesins in bacterial renal infections is an important factor in the subsequent development of UTIs in the upper urinary tract (ie, calyx, renal pelvis, and ureter) via the ascending route.27 The effect of cranberry extract on E coli adhesion to both kidney epithelial cells and uroepithelial cells derived from dogs has been described.28 Results for the microscopic examination performed in the present study correlate with results of another study28 that also revealed antiadhesion activity of cranberries or cranberry extract on E coli adherence to specific primary-cultured uroepithelial cells.28 The antiadherence effect of cranberries is not restricted to a particular group of E coli strains, which might otherwise be caused by interference with specific receptor-ligand modes of bacterial adhesion or by inhibition of expression of the bacterial fimbriae.21,29 The effect of cranberry intake might be synergistic, but the details remain unclear. In the present study, we minimized the possible bias associated with a noncontrolled trial by developing a bioassay to test adhesion of bacteria to MDCK cells that were cultured with urine obtained from dogs after they had received cranberry extract. 041b061a72


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